Every Nubian Home Has a Crocodile…

In my travels to Egypt, I’ve come to know Nubian people in Luxor, Aswan, and Abu Simbel.  Although they are certainly Egyptians (and identify as such), they are a distinct ethnic group, different from the Bedouins, Amazigh, and other ethnic groups that together create the rich cultural heritage that makes up modern Egypt.

I’ve heard a Nubian acquaintance named Karim say several times, “Every Nubian home has a crocodile.”  What he means by this is that it is traditional for Nubians to display preserved (dried) crocodiles both inside and outside of their homes.  One of these days, I need to ask why this tradition exists.

On the Outside

Tourists can visit the Nubian community named Gharb Soheil, which is across the Nile River from Aswan, Egypt. There are two ways to approach it, either by bus or by a boat.  If approaching via bus, it’s likely you’ll see a building with the words “Crocodile House” painted on the outside, and a preserved crocodile mounted on the exterior wall above one of the doors (on the left of this photo).

Crocodile House
This house in the Nubian community of Gharb Soheil features the words “Crocodile House” on its exterior, and a preserved crocodile mounted above the door on the left. Photo copyright 2015 by Jewel, all rights reserved.

This isn’t the only building I’ve seen with a crocodile mounted in front of an entrance.  Here’s another I saw as we drove past:

Crocodile Mounted Above a Door
This home in Gharb Soheil (a Nubian community across the river from Aswan, Egypt) displays a preserved crocodile outdoors, above the door. Photo copyright 2015 by Jewel, all rights reserved.

On the Inside

It is also common to find crocodiles mounted on the walls indoors, such as this Nubian home.

Crocodiles Displayed on a Wall of a Nubian Home
This home in Gharb Soheil (a Nubian community across the river from Aswan, Egypt) displays preserved crocodiles on the walls indoors. Photo copyright 2019 by Jewel, all rights reserved.

Below is another view of a Nubian home with a crocodile over a door:

Crocodile on an Indoor Wall
This home in Gharb Soheil (a Nubian community across the river from Aswan, Egypt) displays a preserved crocodile above a door indoors. Photo copyright 2017 by Jewel, all rights reserved.

One of the Nubian homes I have visited at Gharb Soheil also displays three crocodile skulls outdoors in the yard. Can you find them all?

Crocodile Skulls
This home in Gharb Soheil (a Nubian community across the river from Aswan, Egypt) displays the skulls of crocodiles outdoors in its yard. Photo copyright 2019 by Jewel, all rights reserved.

Living Crocodiles

There are a number of Nubian homes in Gharb Soheil who make part of their income by allowing tour groups to visit and look around.  They will often spend some time talking about Nubian culture, and answering questions.  Some of these keep live crocodiles on hand in a terrarium to show the tourists:

Crocodile in a Terrarium
This home in Gharb Soheil (a Nubian community across the river from Aswan, Egypt) has a terrarium with live crocodiles. Photo copyright 2019 by Jewel, all rights reserved.

Once a crocodile outgrows the terrarium, the family takes it back to the Nile to release it into the wild.  They need to take it to the south side of the Aswan Dam, because it’s illegal to release crocodiles into the northern part.

One time I asked Karim to tell me how they go about transporting a full-grown crocodile and releasing it without getting attacked in the process.  He told me they wrap a scarf around its jaws, to hold them shut, and they wrap a second scarf to secure the tail next to the body.  (An adult crocodile’s powerful tail can easily sweep a person off his feet.)  Next, several of them lift the crocodile into the back of a truck, and drive it to the shore of the Nile. Upon arrival, they remove the crocodile from the truck. Then comes the delicate process of removing the scarves.  He said typically the crocodiles don’t stay around to attack.  They’re happy to head straight for the water and swim away.

The Nubian homes who feature these tours generally acquire their crocodiles by collecting crocodile eggs.  They hatch the eggs, then raise the baby crocodiles to adulthood.  It is possible for tourists to pose for photos with the babies, as I am doing here.  I have noticed that the Nubians handle the baby crocodiles carefully, to avoid harming them.

Here I am, holding a baby crocodile at a Nubian home in Gharb Soheil (a Nubian community across the river from Aswan). Photo copyright 2019 by Jewel, all rights reserved.

Other Places Crocodiles Turn Up

Sometimes you’ll encounter preserved crocodiles in other interesting places.  For example, Karim displays this crocodile head on his boat. It has a plastic fish in its mouth:

Crocodile Head on Boat
A preserved crocodile head appears on a Nile ferry boat operated by a Nubian named Captain Karim. Photo copyright 2015 by Jewel, all rights reserved.

About the Photo at the Top of this Page

The photo at the top of this page shows the ancient Egyptian god Sobek, who was often depicted in Egyptian art as either a crocodile, or as a man with the head of a crocodile.

This pillar resides in the temple at the town of Kom Ombo, Egypt. The temple at Kom Ombo, Egypt is unique because it honors two different gods – Sobek (with a crocodile head) and Horus the Elder (with a falcon head).

Kom Ombo was built during the period of the Greek Pharaohs, from 180 BCE to 47 BCE.  It includes a fabulous on-site Crocodile Museum featuring crocodile mummies. Unfortunately, the Crocodile Museum does not allow visitors to take photos.

Other Posts Mentioning Aswan on this Site

Other Posts Related to Nubian Culture at This Blog

Honoring Motherhood in Ancient Egypt

Temples and tombs from ancient Egypt offer many tributes to motherhood.  As of 2019, I’ve found one tomb at Saqqara with a madonna scene, and several temples along the Nile cruise route with motherhood-related images, including Luxor Temple, Edfu Temple, Kom Ombo Temple, and Philae Temple.  Here’s a look at the ones I’ve discovered in my travels so far.

Saqqara

Tomb of Niankhkhnum and Khnumhotep (Tomb of the Brothers)

At Saqqara, which is just outside of Cairo, the tomb of Niankhkhnum and Khnumhotep, often known as the “tomb of the hairdressers” or the “tomb of the brothers” features two beautiful scenes of motherhood near its entrance.

These are the oldest images from ancient Egypt that I have found so far celebrating motherhood. Although scholars have not determined the tomb’s exact age, the current theory is that Niankhkhnum and Khnumhotep served either Nyuserre Ini or Menkauhor Kaiu.  Assuming that theory is correct, this tomb would thus have been built in the latter part of the 25th century BCE, making it over 4,000 years old.

One of the images at this tomb shows a small child playing around his mother while she does her daily housework.

Tomb of the Brothers
This scene of a mother and her baby appears at the entrance of the Tomb of the Brothers (often called Tomb of the Hairdressers) at Saqqara. Photo taken March 31, 2019, copyright Jewel, all rights reserved.

The other shows the mother nursing the baby when it’s time to feed him. It’s really interesting to see this madonna-type image that was created about 2,500 years before the time of Christ.

This scene of a mother nursing her baby appears at the entrance of the Tomb of the Brothers (often called Tomb of the Hairdressers) at Saqqara. Photo taken March 31, 2019, copyright Jewel, all rights reserved.

Luxor

The birth room of the Luxor Temple tells how Queen Mutemwia became the mother of Amenhotep III. It offers a fascinating story of immaculate conception, annunciation, and birth about 1,300 years before the story of Jesus Christ. The bottom row shows the ram-headed creator god Khnum molding two children, one to be the physical body, and the other to be his ka (spirit version).  The story goes on to show the god Amun coming to her, the conception, the pregnancy, and the birth. The intent of the story is to justify Amenhotep III’s right to be revered as a god, just as the later story of Jesus used immaculate conception to justify his claim to be the Son of God.

In this segment of the wall, we see Queen Mutemwia (top right) sitting on the birth chair giving birth to her son s the deities Isis and Khnum rub her hands.

Birth Room in Luxor Temple
This scene in the birth room of the Luxor temple shows Queen Mutemwia giving birth to her son, Amenhotep III. The top row shows her seated on a stool during labor, as the deities Khnum and Isis rub her hands. Below that, she is giving birth to her baby.

This birth scene would have been commissioned by Queen Mutemwia’s son, Amenhotep III, to support his divine claim to the throne of Egypt. Scholars estimate that his 37-year reign begin in 1386 BCE or 1388 BCE, which places the age of this scene as being more than 1,000 years before the temples of Edfu, Kom Ombo, and Philae (mentioned below) were constructed.

Interestingly, I had visited the Luxor Temple approximately 8 times without ever seeing this birth story.  Finally, I visited the temple for about the 9th time in 2019, and this was the first time a guide showed me this scene.  It’s not something that every tour of the Luxor Temple includes.  If you want to see the birth room, you may need to insist that your guide include it in the tour.

Edfu

The Edfu temple honors Horus the Elder and his wife, Hathor.  Some of its walls feature scenes of Hathor nursing her infant, Horus the Younger.  Some of these scenes were damaged by early Christians during the Roman era, in an attempt to obliterate the earlier Pagan beliefs.

Near the entrance to the Edfu temple is a special room known as the mammisi, or “birth room”.  This is a small chapel located just outside and in front of the main pylons, and it celebrates the birth of “Horus, the Unifier of Two Lands”.  The mammisi features several images of Hathor playing musical instruments, including sistrum (rattle), frame drum, and lyre.

This scene of Hathor nursing her baby appears on a wall of the temple at Edfu, Egypt.

The Edfu temple that stands today is relatively young, but resides on the site of a much older shrine.  The structure that stands today was built after Alexander the Great conquered Egypt, leading to the era of Greek Pharaohs that ended with Cleopatra. The first stone of today’s temple was laid in 237 BCE, and it was consecrated in 142 BCE. This is one of the best preserved temples in Egypt due to having been buried for centuries under sand and river silt deposited by the Nile inundations.

For another of my blog posts about Edfu Temple, see Dance Like an Egyptian!

Kom Ombo

The temple at Kom Ombo, Egypt is unique because it honors two different gods – Sobek (with a crocodile head) and Horus the Elder (with a falcon head).  It’s a fascinating temple to visit, with many interesting images on its walls.

These scenes of women in labor and surgical tools appear on a wall of the temple in Kom Ombo, Egypt.

A unique segment of wall that is popular with many of the tourists who visit Kom Ombo is the scene showing two women using birthing chairs to give birth.  The wall to the right of them features images of surgical tools.

The throne-shaped object on the head of the lower woman is a nod to the goddess Isis and her role as a patron of fertility and motherhood.

One of the tour guides I’ve worked with, Abdul Aly, has proudly pointed out that ancient Egyptians have known about the benefits of delivering babies while sitting up in birthing chairs for at least 2,000 years. In contrast, modern Western medicine only started to embrace birthing chairs and the upright posture since about the 1980’s.

Like Edfu, Kom Ombo was built during the period of the Greek Pharaohs, on top of an older temple site dating from the New Kingdom.  Construction lasted from 180 BCE to 47 BCE.  In addition to the birthing chair scene, I was very fond of the on-site museum featuring crocodile mummies. Unfortunately, the Crocodile Museum at the temple does not allow visitors to take photos.  Another of my blog posts shows the Nilometer at this temple.

Philae

Philae Island at Aswan hosts the beautiful Nubian temple of Isis.  Construction began around 690 BCE, on a site that had hosted an older structure, with most of the temple that remains today being built during the reign of Nectanebo I, ranging from 380-362.  In the 1960’s, the island was flooded by the rising waters of the Nile caused by the Aswan High Dam, and Philae was one of the temples moved to a new site on higher ground funded by UNESCO.

Isis nurses Horus in this scene at the temple on Philae Island at Aswan, Egypt. Photo by Jewel, copyright 2015, all rights reserved.

There are several images of Isis nursing the baby Horus in this temple.  These resemble the madonna-style images of Hathor with Horus at Edfu. There is some overlap of the stories regarding Hathor (which were earlier) and Isis (who came later.)  Unfortunately, many of the images of Isis with Horus at Philae were vandalized during the Roman era by early Christians who were trying to obliterate the earlier Pagan religion.

Closing Thoughts

I’ve featured highlights of how ancient Egypt honored motherhood by selecting several must-see images to watch for that are easy to find if taking a Nile cruise or a Luxor-to-Aswan tour or touring Saqqara near Cairo.  These are ones I’ve personally noticed so far on my travels to Egypt, but I’m sure there are many I have not yet found.  I’ll keep looking, and if I find more, I’ll add them to this blog post.

I encourage you, too, to keep looking on your own. You’re sure to discover more of these images in statues (in museums), tombs, and other temples.

Exploring Nilometers in Egypt

A Nilometer (Nile-o-meter) is a structure in Egypt for measuring how high the annual flood of the river Nile rises each year. Before the 20th century, each year the Nile River would flood in the spring, spreading silt across the land it covered.  This inundation brought life to the region, because the silt it deposited enhanced the fertility of the soil.

The government used the Nilometer readings to determine the taxes for that year.  If the flood level was measured as low, then taxes that year would be low, due to reduced rich silt deposits and possible drought. If the flood level was medium, taxes that year would be high, because medium was the ideal level. If flood level was high, there would be no taxes because the flood was destructive and people needed to recover.

In my travels to Egypt, I’ve seen 3 different Nilometers.  There are others that I have not (yet) had the opportunity to see, but perhaps I’ll get to see them on a future trip! I’ve seen reports that as of today there are fewer than 24 known Nilometers which have been found by archaeologists.

Cairo

The Nilometer in Cairo is on Rhoda Island, a short walk from the Oum Kalthoum Museum. If you visit Cairo, it’s worth a trip to the island to visit both.

Photo copyright 2018 by Jewel. All rights reserved.

This Nilometer is one of the oldest structures in Egypt built after the Arab conquest. The original building at this site was erected in 751 CE, though archaeologists believe there was probably an older Nilometer at this site in Pharaonic times.   This initial structure was destroyed by a heavy flood in 861 CE, so the Abbasid Caliph al-Mutawakkil commissioned the current building to replace it.

Although the subterranean portion of the ancient building still stands, its dome was destroyed in 1825 by a nearby explosion.  A restoration was created, using a painting by Fredrik Ludvig Nordenas to provide guidance on what the original looked like.

This is the interior of the dome of the Nilometer in Cairo on Rhoda Island, next to the Oum Kalthoum museum. This section was destroyed in 1825 and reconstructed.  Photo was taken from surface level looking up into the cupola on February 9, 2017.

The instrument for measuring the water’s height is an octagonal column divided into cubits located in the middle of the square stone-lined shaft. This photo shows the central shaft, as you look down from the street-level entrance:

Photo copyright 2018 by Jewel. All rights reserved.

Today, the tunnels leading from the Nilometer to the Nile are blocked off, and therefore water no longer comes in.

It is possible to descend a flight of stairs into the shaft. There are no handrails along the stairs, so it requires an adventurous spirit to do it! The interior is beautiful.

Photo copyright 2018 by Jewel. All rights reserved.

Kom Ombo

This Nilometer is located at the temple in Kom Ombo, Egypt, a town that lies between Luxor and Aswan. This is one of the temples that Nile cruises stop at, and it’s a very interesting one to tour because it’s dedicated to TWO gods, Horus the Elder and Sobek.

The Nilometer at Kom Ombo is a deep, cylindrical opening into the ground. At ground level, it doesn’t look like much, just a small circular wall.

Photo copyright 2018 by Jewel. All rights reserved.

It has a tunnel at the bottom that reaches outside the temple walls to allow the flood water to come in.

PHoto copyright 2018 by Jewel. All rights reserved.

Aswan

I have seen this Nilometer near Aswan from a boat on the river, as we floated past Elephantine Island where it resides. I haven’t yet set foot on the island to see its entrance from above. Archaeologists believe it is the oldest Nilometer in Egypt.

For most of ancient Egyptian history, Elephantine Island was the southern border of the Pharaonic kingdom. For that reason, the flood waters would reach this Nilometer first, before flowing downstream to the rest of the kingdom. It provided early insight into what growing conditions the country as a whole could expect.

Photo copyright 2018 by Jewel. All rights reserved.

This Nilometer at Elephantine Island was mentioned in the novel River God, by Wilbur Smith.

Ones I Haven’t Seen

Someday, I hope to see other Nilometers in Egypt. There’s one in the Nile delta at the ancient city Thmuis, which is near the modern city of El Mansoura. Archaeologists estimate it was build in the 3rd century BCE. I learned about this one from a National Geographic article about it.

The beautiful temple of Isis that resided on Philae Island had two Nilometers.  However, in the 1960’s, because of Aswan Dam constructions, about 1/3 of the temple’s buildings became flooded year round. The Philae temple was dismantled and moved to Agilkia Island as part of the UNESCO effort to save temples threatened by the completion of the Aswan High Dam. I don’t know yet whether Philae’s surface-level Nilometer structures were moved and reconstructed when the temple was moved. I have toured Philae about 5 times on my various trips to Egypt, and the guides didn’t point out any Nilometer remnants.  Even if they did, it would be only surface level, without the deep hole down into the ground.  I’ll ask about it the next time I go.

Acknowledgements

I’d like to thank Wael Mohamed Ali for assisting me with my questions about the Nilometers in the Aswan area.  I’ve appreciated Wael’s services on some of my visits to Upper Egypt as a tour guide and a translator.  He’s very knowledgeable, and a pleasure to do business with!