I sometimes like to offer my readers a “behind the scenes” look at my web sites. It can be interesting, for example, to see which articles are the most popular (as measured by page views), and compare that to which articles you have enjoyed the most. Also, if you see that something is popular which you haven’t read yet, you might want to check it out to see what you’re missing! Continue reading “2019 Year in Review”
Once a year, the people of Luxor, Egypt enjoy a 3-day party celebrating the moulid (birth date) of the 13th century Sufi leader Sheikh Yusuf al-Haggag, who was also known as “Abu al-Haggag”, “father of the pilgrims”.
Every year after Thanksgiving, my husband and I enjoy exploring the outdoor Christmas lights in the area around Iowa City, Iowa. If you’re planning to visit friends or family in the area, maybe you’ll enjoy taking a drive to enjoy these for yourself.
Once a year, Cairo hosts the Moulid al-Hussein, which is a major Sufi religious festival. It’s a mixture of sacred religious observation and joyous celebration. Many Egyptians from throughout the country come to Cairo for it. A moulid observes a holy person’s birth date, and this particular one honors the grandson of the Prophet Mohamed, whose name was Hussein.
When you travel, remember that a foreign country is not designed to make you comfortable. It is designed to make its own people comfortable.— Clifton Fadiman
I think tourists, digital nomads, expatriates, and travel bloggers often forget this important point. When we travel, we are guests in somebody else’s homeland. I have seen some travel blogs that made me wince, due to how disrespectfully the authors write about places they have visited. Some talked about trying to worm their way into private spaces uninvited, some mocked local food or customs, some focused on difficulties they encountered, etc.
You might have noticed that here on this blog, I try to focus on the positive aspects of the places I have visited. I do, of course, notice negative things too, and yes, I too have had some bad experiences. I just choose not to write about them in my blog.
One issue is that most of the bad experiences I’ve had traveling are also things that could happen here in the U.S. such as sexual harassment, bad traffic, etc. It would be hypocritical to criticize someone else’s home when mine has the same issues.
As for mocking a local culture’s way of doing things, I think that mocking is immature behavior. It shows a lack of empathy, and usually its purpose is attention-seeking, as the person doing it is trying to make themselves look clever or witty by denigrating someone else.
Also, people from other countries could legitimately find things to criticize about the place where I live, and I’d feel kind of sad to see something rude written about my home town — even when I realize it’s true. So I when I write my blog entries, I try to treat the places I’ve visited according to how I’d like to see visitors treat my home when they write about it.
When I write about the people I’ve encountered, I always think, “What if that person reads what I’ve written? What emotion will they feel reading it, and is that the emotion the one I would want them to feel?”
There are many aspects of any culture that can make travelers uncomfortable: what kind of attire people wear in daily lives, what people eat and drink, how traffic operates, negotiating prices on purchases, unfamiliar language, and more. But… if we want to wear what we normally wear, eat what we normally eat, and so on, then why travel? Why not stay home where we can surround ourselves with our own ideas of comfort?
We tend to find what we’re looking for. If we look for beauty and joy, we’ll find it. On the other hand, if we look for something to mock or criticize, we’ll find that. It’s more fun to look for beauty and joy, so that’s where I put my energy.
Sometimes I go back and update old blog posts. This can happen if I get new information, new photos, or need to correct old information.
In my April 2019 visit to Egypt, I took more photos and learned new stuff. While doing all the photo sorting from that trip, I also went back into the not-yet-sorted directories of photos I had taken on previous trips to delete duplicates, sort and rename the ones I decided to keep, etc. This yielded additional photos I could add to some of my blog entries.
As of summer 2019, I have traveled to Egypt 14 times, so naturally I’ve had many opportunities over the years to photograph sunrises, sunsets, and moons there. Here are my favorites.
At the Pyramids of Giza Near Cairo, Egypt
Any post celebrating sunsets in Egypt clearly needs to start with the sun setting behind the Pyramids of Giza!
This sunset photo was taken in February, 2017 when I went to Egypt as part of Sahra Kent’s “Journey Through Egypt 3” tour. We stayed at the Sphinx Guest House, which is a bed & breakfast place in Giza, Egypt (near Cairo). This was the view from our window! If you look closely, you can see the Sphinx in front of the middle pyramid.
And because I love Egypt and its pyramids so much, here’s a sunset photo I took in February 2016. This year, too, I accompanied Sahra’s “Journey Through Egypt” tour, and I took this photo from my room at the Sphinx Guest House.
I caught the sunset at a different point in February, 2015. This year was the first time I accompanied Sahra on her “Journey Through Egypt” tour, but it wasn’t my first time in Egypt. This photo offers more light, and therefore a clearer view of the Sphinx.
One of my favorite photos that I have taken in my travels is one of the moon rising over the Great Pyramid. I sat with friends in the garden cafe at the Mena House hotel, and this was our view. I had accompanied my friend Morocco to the Ahlan Wa Sahlan festival, which was held at Mena House.
The Overnight Train from Cairo to Luxor
It’s about 400 miles from Cairo, Egypt to Luxor. An affordable way to make the trip is via an overnight train with sleeper cars. The train leaves Cairo late in the afternoon, which allows an opportunity to watch the sun rise as you approach Luxor in the morning. I took this photo in February, 2016.
Luxor by Night
When I go to Luxor, I really like staying at the Gezira Garden Hotel. It’s a beautiful setting on the West Bank, and it offers excellent customer service, and delicious meals.
Getting from the West Bank where the hotel is, over to the East Bank where the actual city of Luxor lies, is easiest and fastest via ferry. After dark, the reflection of Luxor’s lights on the Nile River creates a beautiful scene.
On a Nile Cruise Ship, Probably Between Edfu and Luxor
I think my Nile cruise ship was heading north from Edfu to Luxor at the time I captured these sunset photos in 2008. First this one, as the sun was sinking over the horizon:
As the sun lowered further, it created the beautiful pink and orange effects around it:
The Road to Aswan
There are many scenic views to enjoy along the drive south from Kom Ombo to Aswan. This sunset captured my attention on April 22, 2019.
The Basma Hotel features a terrace that looks out over the city and the Nile River below. It’s the perfect spot to watch the sun set. This photo was taken in April, 2019.
These photos were both taken in 2016, from the upper group of rooms on top of the hill at the Basma hotel in Aswan, Egypt, looking out in two different directions.
At Lake Nasser, at the Abu Simbel Temple in Southern Egypt
Twice a year, on February 22 and October 22, the rays of the rising sun pierce the inner chamber of the Temple of Ramses at Abu Simbel, Egypt. On this date, the light shines on Amun-Ra of Karnak, Ra-Horakhti of Heliopolis and Ramses II, but the fourth god in the sanctuary, Ptah of Memphis, remains always in shadow. I was there for this event on February 22, 2015, when I accompanied Sahra Kent on her “Journey Through Egypt” tour.
The Mediterranean Sea at Alexandria, Egypt
These photos are from my visit to Alexandria, Egypt in June, 2008. My friend Saqra and I went to a family-oriented beach one beautiful afternoon. Alexandria is a popular place for families from Cairo to spend vacation time during the summer, due to the fact that the sea air gives it cooler temperatures than Cairo. We stayed to watch the sun set, then went to the theater at the Alexandria Library to watch the show titled “The World Dances with Mahmoud Reda”.
Later in the sunset, as the light begins to fade, the sky remains beautiful and the sea takes on a range of colors.
Once a year, the city of Luxor, Egypt throws a 3-day party celebrating the moulid (birth date) of the 13th century Sufi leader Sheikh Yusuf al-Haggag, who was also known as “Abu al-Haggag”, “father of the pilgrims”. Tourists from other parts of Egypt often come to Luxor to join the party. I’ve been to the moulid twice: once in 2018, and again in 2019.
Over the course of the event, people celebrate with tahtib (martial art) competitions for the men, carnival rides for the children, pilgrimages to the Abu al-Haggag Mosque, Sufi zikrs (rituals), horse racing, and more. The moulid’s final day culminates with the Dora, a parade. For purposes of this blog post, I’ll focus on the Dora. Perhaps in the future I’ll show some of the other facets of the festival.
The festival occurs in the middle of the Islamic month of Sha’aban, which is the month that immediately precedes Ramadan. The Islamic calendar is lunar, so every year it shifts about 2 weeks compared to the 365-day solar calendar. In 2019 when I was there, the moulid’s Layla Kebira (big night) was on April 19, the night of the full moon. (In 2018, it was April 29.)
The day after the Abu Haggag’s moulid holds its Layla Kebira, the people of Luxor close the festival with the Dora. Although moulid celebrations occur throughout Egypt honoring various different saints, the only one to feature a Dora is Luxor’s Abu Haggag.
The Dora’s Origin
Historians believe the roots of the Dora lie in the Opet festival of ancient Egypt, which many archaeologists believe began during the reign of Hatshepsut 3,000 years ago. This event, known as the Beautiful Feast, was celebrated at the time of the Nile’s annual inundation, and it was Luxor’s most important holiday. Egyptians would transport a statue of the god Amun-Ra in a boat traveling from the Karnak Temple to the Luxor Temple, where statues of his consort Mut and his son Khons awaited him. In later years, after the canal silted up, the boats were carried along the route. The statues would remain at the Luxor Temple for the 24 days of celebration, then return by boat to Karnak at the end.
The path of this procession was marked by the Avenue of the Sphinxes shown below, which still remains in Luxor today. Interestingly, at the Luxor end of the Avenue (shown in this photo), the sphinxes feature human heads. At the opposite end, at the Karnak temple, the sphinxes feature rams’ heads. The sculptures gradually change from human heads to rams’ heads along the route from the Luxor Temple to Karnak Temple.
The modern-day Dora at the end of the Abu al-Haggag moulid is believed to be directly descended from this procession of ancient times. Just as the ancients conducted their procession with boats while the Nile River was in its annual flood stage, the modern-day Egyptians still refer to the vehicles in the Dora as “boats” and some are constructed to indeed look like boats.
However, today they move through the streets on wheels. Some look like actual boats mounted on carts just for the day. (It makes me wonder whether the “floats” we refer to in modern-day parades in North America are a holdover from this ancient tradition. Why do we call them “floats”?)
The Morning of the Dora
The Dora itself does not begin until mid-day. However, it is entertaining to head for downtown Luxor early in the morning to grab a window seat at an upstairs coffee shop where you can drink coffee, eat ice cream, and watch the preparations. It’s good to pick a place with a view of the Abu Haggag Mosque and Luxor Temple, because a large amount of moulid action takes place in front of them.
We could see a large amount of activity in the street below our coffee shop, such as donkey carts, camels dressed up for the parade, horse-drawn carriages, various automobiles going about their business, and more.
It’s great fun to see the many costume items people use to dress up their camels. People drape them in colorful scarves, and sometimes even include some belly dance hip scarves jingling with coins. I laughed when I saw one with a British flag draped over his butt. We saw one camel wearing a Bob Marley hat!
Watching the Dora in Luxor can be a bit of a challenge. One issue is that it’s not easy for a foreigner to determine in advance which streets to go to for watching. City officials don’t publicize the parade route in advance, for security reasons. Another issue, which is true of almost any parade anywhere in the world, is that it can be difficult to work your way through the crowd to a spot where you can see. I forgot to wear sunscreen, which left my face looking a bit pink after four hours in the sun!
The Dora isn’t nearly as structured as the parades I’m accustomed to in the United States, and that’s one of the things I like very much about it! I could be wrong about this, but I don’t think the participants necessarily adhere to a specific parade route and a specific lineup. I got the impression that some of the participants joined in wherever they felt like it, and also turned off of the main parade route when they wanted to, particularly the costumed camels.
The Dora very much feels like a mobile party, much more entertaining than my local college’s Homecoming parade. There are no marching bands in the Dora, but there’s plenty of music in the form of large speakers booming out pre-recorded pop music.
In many cases, a large group of young men holding assayas (the sticks used for the ancient Egyptian martial art of tahtib) walks together in front of a boat, waving their sticks in time to the music coming from the speakers. I feel so much joy and pride coming from them as they pass by, and I think they’re my favorite part of the experience of watching the Dora. Even after they have passed by, I still find myself smiling. I took several photos of them, but found that I just couldn’t capture the energy and excitement.
Generally speaking, each of the boats represents a business, and features decorations that match with the type of work the business does. Several boats represent grocers, each with a beautiful display of fruit. As these boats progress along the Dora route, the people on them pitch apples, oranges, mangoes, and other fruit out to the people watching. People happily catch them and wave back to the people on the boat.
I saw one guy toss an orange up to a group of people watching from a balcony above him, but his aim was bad, and the fruit crashed through a nearby window! Oops! To my surprise, nobody acted angry or upset about it. Someone emerged from behind the broken window, smiling and waving. Of course, things can get quite entertaining if the boat passing by contains watermelons and its occupants decide to throw a few of those to the crowd….
Sometimes things can go wrong. One boat was a garbage truck. As it approached where I was watching, it spouted several puffs of colored particles. They were fun to see, but made it hard for me to watch due to some of the dust getting under my contact lenses.
As I was blinking and rubbing my eyes, someone inside the truck’s cab must have accidentally bumped the control that operates the dump function. The back of the truck started to raise, and several moments of confusion arose as the men on top of it either tried to jump down into the surrounding crowd or clung to it trying to hang on. For a few minutes, the parade halted as the people involved with the truck tried to work out what to do next. Eventually, they figured out what to do and the truck started to move again.
The finale of the parade consists of camels carrying shrines on their backs. Each shrine looks like a small house made of fabric. Seated inside each shrine is a child holding it steadily in position on the camel’s back. People along the parade route look to the shrines for blessings as they pass by. When I saw the Dora in 2018, there were about five shrines, but in 2019 I counted eleven of them!
After the shrines have passed, there can be a few more boats, camels, and other parade participants following behind, but at this point the crowd starts to dissipate. I was definitely ready to head back to the Nile to catch the ferry to my hotel, because I had been standing on my feet for about 4 hours at that point. Although my back and feet were sore and my face pink from sunburn, I felt it was worth every minute I spent enjoying this unique Luxor experience! The Abu el-Haggag moulid is a living example of why Luxor’s modern-day culture is every bit as fascinating as its archaeology.